United Nations
Information Centre | Nepal
Forms of Government - Nepal Participatory Constitution Building Booklet Series No. 5 Centre
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There are approximately 200 existing political systems around the world and each has its distinct features and characteristics. Ancient Greek philosophers classified governments as monarchy, aristocracy, polity, tyranny, oligarchy and democracy. States can also be classified by whether they have a unitary or federal form of government, or whether they are democracies or dictatorships. Within democratic systems, there are many different models. Some systems place more powers in the parliament and are called parliamentary systems, and other systems place more powers into a directly elected president and are called presidential systems. Among parliamentary and presidential systems there will be different outcomes depending on other factors, such as the party landscape (number of parties), the electoral system, the availability of natural resources and the role of civil society. Generally, constitutions do not expressly declare that they have adopted a presidential, parliamentary or mixed system. Each constitution designs its own specific balance between the different branches of government, and political scientists then categorize them as following a specific model. In drafting a new constitution, the choice is not necessarily between one model or another. The challenge is to find the appropriate setup of institutions and assign them with clear and appropriate powers. The goal should be to guarantee a political outcome for the country, such as stability, social harmony, good governance, and the rule of law. Democratic government is characterized by the "separation of powers" between the three branches of government – the executive, the legislative and the judicial branch. This is also known as the system of "checks and balances". But no democratic system exists with an absolute separation of powers or an absolute lack of separation of powers. While constitutions rarely mention this separation of powers explicitly, this can be seen from an analysis of the relationships between the different constitutional organs i.e. the executive, the legislature and the judiciary.
#PoliticalSystems #GovernanceSystem
Publisher:
CCD/UNDP ,   (2009 )
Type / Script:
Publication in English
Keywords:
FEDERAL SYSTEM, FEDERALISM, MONETARY POLICY, CONSTITUTIONS, CONSTITUTIONAL LAW, HUMAN RIGHTS, CIVIL RIGHTS, POLITICAL RIGHTS, FREEDOM, WOMEN'S RIGHTS, HUMAN SECURITY, HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS, RIGHT TO PEACE, CAPACITY BUILDING, JUDICIAL SYSTEM, COURTS, EDUCATION, GOVERNMENT POLICY, DEVELOPMENT POLICY, EXECUTIVE POWER, LEGISLATIVE POWER, JUDICIAL POWER
Thematic Group:
 UNDP : Social and Institutional Developoment
Thesaurus:
01.07.00  -  General And National Law
Reference Link:
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