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नेपालमा आदिवासी जनजाति महिलाको आर्थिक सशक्तीकरण
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नेपाल आफ्नो प्राकृतिक सुन्दरता, वन्यजन्तु र वनस्पतिका कारण परिचित
छ । वि.सं. २०६८ (सन् २०११) को राष्ट्रिय जनगणना अनुसार कुल
जनसङ्ख्याको ३५.८० प्रतिशत आदिवासी जनजातिसहित नेपाल पुख्र्यौली सम्पदा र
जातीय विविधतायुक्त देश पनि हो । नेपाल अहिले अल्पविकसित मुलुकबाट स्तरोन्नति
हुने क्रममा छ र अधिकांश आदिवासी जनजातिलाई प्रभावित पार्ने न्यून प्रतिनिधित्व र
सीमित सशक्तीकरणका विषयवस्तुलाई सामान्यतः सम्बोधन पनि गरेको छ तथापि नेपालको
यो सम्पन्नतामा गरिबी र भेदभावको धुमिल पक्ष पनि छ । विशेष चासोमा आदिवासी
जनजाति महिला रहेका छन् । उनीहरू कुल जनसङ्ख्याको १८ प्रतिशतभन्दा बढी छन् र
आफ्नो परिवार र समुदायका लागि महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका निर्वाह गर्दागर्दै पनि ज्यादै
परम्परावादी पितृसत्तात्मक समाजमा आदिवासी जनजाति र अधिकारविहीन महिलाका
रूपमा सीमान्तीकरणको दोहोरो भेदभावमा परेका छन् ।
सन् २०१७ मा आयोजना भएको महिलाको स्थिति सम्बन्धी संयुक्त राष्ट्रसंघीय महिला
आयोगको ६१औँ सत्रमा सदस्य राष्ट्रहरू तथा नागरिक समाजले कामको परिवर्तित
विश्वमा आदिवासी जनजाति महिलामा विशेष केन्द्रित भएर महिलाको आर्थिक
सशक्तीकरणका विषयवस्तुमाथि सम्बोधन गरे । आयोगले आदिवासी जनजाति
महिलाले सामना गर्नु परेका चुनौती र कठिनाइलाई सम्बोधन गर्न उनीहरूको
सशक्तीकरणमा केन्द्रित हुनुपर्ने आवश्यकता पहिचान ग¥यो । यसले आदिवासी
जनजाति महिलाको आर्थिक आत्मनिर्भरताका लागि सामाजिक, सांस्कृतिक, नागरिक
र राजनीतिक संलग्नतामा सुधार गर्ने र अझ दिगो समुदायलाई प्रोत्साहित गर्न
उनीहरूको आर्थिक विकासको महत्वलाई स्वीकृत ग¥यो । यस कार्यले आदिवासी
जनजाति महिलाको अवस्थामा सुधार मात्र गर्दैन बरु राष्ट्रिय अर्थतन्त्रमा उनीहरूलाई
राम्ररी समाहित गर्न पनि योगदान गर्दछ ।

सन् २००७ मा संयुक्त राष्ट्रसंघीय महासभाबाट आदिवासी जनजातिको अधिकारसम्बन्धी
संयुक्त राष्ट्रसंघीय घोषणापत्र पारित भयो । यसको धारा २२ ले भन्दछ, “यस
घोषणापत्रको कार्यान्वयन गर्दा आदिवासी जनजाति वृद्ध÷वृद्धा, महिला, युवा,
बालबालिका र अपाङ्गता भएका व्यक्तिहरूका अधिकार र विशेष आवश्यकताहरूमा
विशेष ध्यान दिइनु पर्दछ ।” यसका अतिरिक्त नेपाल आदिवासी जनजाति सम्बन्धी
आईएलओको महासन्धि नम्बर १६९ को पक्षराष्ट्र पनि रहेको छ । नेपालका ३५
प्रतिशतभन्दा बढी जनता आदिवासी जनजाति छन्, ती सामाजिक–आर्थिक र
राजनीतिक आधारमा सीमान्तीकरणमा नपरेको सुनिश्चित गर्ने दायित्व सरकारको
रहेको छ ।
सन् २०१५ सेप्टेम्बरमा नेपालले एजेन्डा २०३० र यसका दिगो विकास लक्ष्यहरूलाई
अनुमोदन ग¥यो । यसो गर्दा कसैलाई पछाडि नछाडिने सिद्धान्त र असमानतालाई
सम्बोधन गरिने कुराप्रति प्रतिवद्धता पनि नेपालले गरेको छ ।
माथि उल्लेख गरिएका सन्दर्भमा नेपालमा आदिवासी जनजाति महिलाको यथार्थ
स्थिति बुभ्mन र उनीहरूको आर्थिक विकासका चुनौती र अवसरहरूबारे अझ राम्रोसँग
थाहा पाउन राष्ट्रिय आदिवासी जनजाति महिला महासंघसँगको साझेदारीमा युएनडीपी
नेपालले“नेपालमा आदिवासी जनजाति महिलाको आर्थिक सशक्तीकरण”का सम्बन्धमा
यो अनुसन्धान गरेको छ ।
यस अनुसन्धानले पुख्र्यौली भूमि गुमाएको र वन तथा प्राकृतिक स्रोतहरूमाथिको
पहुँचमा बन्देज लगाइएको, कठोर पितृसत्तात्मक श्रम विभाजन, जग्गाको स्वामित्वका
मान्यता तथा निर्णय प्रक्रियामा सहभागिता लगायतका विषयवस्तु÷मुद्दाहरूको परीक्षण
गर्नेछ । आदिवासी जनजाति महिलाले उनीहरूका आफ्ना संस्कृति, परम्परागत सिप
र सम्पदाहरूलाई कायम राख्न, संरक्षण र प्रवद्र्धन गर्न सकून् भनेर उनीहरूलाई कसरी
राम्रोसँग सशक्त बनाउन सकिन्छ भन्ने सिफारिस गर्ने क्रममा यसले पर्यापर्यटनको
विकास र उच्च मूल्यका नगदे बालीको विकासलाई पनि सम्बोधन गर्नेछ ।
२०७२ असोजमा नयाँ संविधान जारी तथा सङ्घीयताको कार्यान्वयनले पनि नेपालमा
स्थानीय निकायको निर्वाचन लगायतबाट निर्णय प्रक्रियामा आदिवासी जनजाति
महिलाको सबल भूमिकाका लागि नयाँ अवसर प्रदान गरेको छ । आदिवासी
जनजातिले उनीहरूको आफ्नो जीविकोपार्जनमा राम्रो योगदान पु¥याउन र समुदायका
हरेक सदस्यका लागि उत्पादकत्व सुनिश्चित गर्न सक्छन् ।
#Empowerment #IndigenousWomen #EmpowermentOfIndigenousWomen
#9382 #11029 #pairing
Publisher:
NIWF/UNDP ,   (2018 )
Type / Script:
Publication in Nepali - नेपाली
Keywords:
DEVELOPING AREAS, ECONOMIC ASPECTS, ECONOMIC DEPENDENCE, ECONOMIC GAP, ECONOMIC GROWTH, ECONOMIC PLANNING, ECONOMIC SECURITY, DEVELOPMENT, AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT, ENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT, INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, LOCAL DEVELOPMENT, NATURAL RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT, CAPACITY BUILDING, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT, POLITICAL PARTICIPATION, POPULAR PARTICIPATION, PROGRAMME OWNERSHIP, RURAL WOMEN, SELF-HELPWOMEN, WOMEN'S EDUCATION, WOMEN'S EMPLOYMENT, WOMEN'S ORGANIZATIONS, WOMEN'S RIGHTS, WOMEN'S STATUS
Thematic Group:
 UNDP : Social and Institutional Developoment
Thesaurus:
02.03.00  -  Special Economic Areas
Reference Link:
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