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नेपालको सामाजिक सुरक्षा क्षेत्रबारे विश्लेषणात्मक जानकारी पत्र
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नेपालमा निवृत्तिभरण, उपदान तथा सञ्चय कोष योजनाहरूको लामो इतिहास भए पनि
नयाँ संविधानले यसलाई थप विस्तारित गर्ने व्यवस्था गरेको छ, जसलाई भविष्यमा तर्जुमा
हुने कानुनी व्यवस्थाहरूले थप आधार प्रदान गर्नेछन् । आर्थिक स्रोत अहिले नै सीमित
भइसकेका कारण केही योजना दिगो हुन नसक्लान् । यस जानकारी पत्रमा सामाजिक सुरक्षा
व्यवस्थाका वर्तमान तथा भावी आयामहरूका साथै यी हक–अधिकारको उपयोग एवं सेवा
प्रवाहका लागि अझ राम्रोसँग गर्नुपर्ने तयारी विषयमा विश्लेषण गरिएको छ ।

सामाजिक सुरक्षाको क्षेत्र
हाल सञ्चालनमा रहेका सामाजिक सुरक्षा योजनाहरू तीन समूहमा बाँडिएका छन् ः
सामाजिक बीमा, सामाजिक सहयोग र श्रम बजार हस्तक्षेप ।
सामाजिक बीमा योजनाहरूमा निवृत्तिभरण तथा उपदान सुविधा, कर्मचारी सञ्चय कोष
र नागरिक लगानी कोषका साथै अपाङ्गता भएकाहरूका लागि बीमा, सुत्केरी बिदा,
श्रमसम्बन्धित चोटपटक, अस्वस्थता तथा आश्रितलाई दिइने सुविधा पर्दछन् । अस्वस्थता,
अपाङ्गता, श्रमसम्बन्धित चोटपटक तथा वृद्धावस्थासँग सम्बन्धित जोखिमलाई न्यूनीकरण
गर्ने उद्देश्ययुक्त यी योजना औपचारिक क्षेत्रका कामदार–कर्मचारीहरूप्रति मात्र लक्षित छन् ।
सामाजिक सहयोग कार्यक्रमहरूमा नगद सामाजिक सुरक्षा भत्ता, वस्तुगत सामग्री वितरण,
प्राथमिक स्वास्थ्य स्याहार तथा आधारभूत शिक्षा पर्दछन् ।
श्रम बजार हस्तक्षेपमा कर्णाली अञ्चलमा सञ्चालित रोजगारी कार्यक्रम, ग्रामीण सामुदायिक
पूर्वाधार कार्यहरू, प्राविधिक तथा व्यावसायिक शिक्षा तालिम, सीप एवं उद्यमशीलता
विकास कार्यक्रम तथा बालश्रम उन्मूलन एवं बालश्रम सुधार कार्यक्रम पर्दछन् । यी सबै
कार्यक्रमको उद्देश्य रोजगारी वृद्धि तथा उत्पादनशील श्रम बजारलाई सहजीकरण गर्नु हो ।
विभिन्न सामाजिक सुरक्षा योजनाबाट लाभान्वित हुनेको कुल संख्या सन् २०१४ मा करिब
७६ लाख थियो । यो संख्या कुल जनसंख्याको २७.३ प्रतिशत मात्र हो ।

अन्तर
यी सामाजिक सुरक्षा योजनाहरू विगतमा आफ्नै कानुन, नियमावली, निर्देशिका तथा
मार्गनिर्देशिकाहरूको अधिनमा रहेर प्रभावकारिता सुनिश्चित नगरीकनै एकपछि अर्काे
गर्दै लागू गरिएका थिए । व्यवस्थित नीतिगत रूपरेखाबिना सञ्चालनमा रहेका यस्ता
नेपालको सामाजिक सुरक्षा क्षेत्रबारे विश्लेषणात्मक जानकारी पत्र कार्यक्रमहरू विभिन्न क्षेत्रमा छरिएका छन् । राष्ट्रिय योजना आयोगले हालैमात्र सामाजिक सुरक्षासम्बन्धी १० वर्षे राष्ट्रिय संरचनाको मस्यौदा तयार गरेको छ तर यसले पूर्णता पाउन बाँकी नै छ । एक दर्जनभन्दा बढी मन्त्रालय तथा निकायको मातहतमा सामाजिक सुरक्षा
व्यवस्थासम्बन्धी कार्यक्रमहरू सञ्चालित छन् तर तिनको कार्यान्वयन तथा अनुगमन गर्नका
लागि कुनै व्यवस्थित संस्थागत रणनीति भने अझै पनि छैन ।
विभिन्न किसिमका सामाजिक सुरक्षा योजनाहरूका लागि स्रोत व्यवस्था गर्न आर्थिक वर्ष
२०६६÷६७ देखि सामाजिक सुरक्षा कर लागू गरिएको भए पनि लाभमुखी कार्यक्रमसहित यी
योजनाका विस्तृत खाका कहिल्यै तयार गरिएन ।
श्रम तथा रोजगार मन्त्रालयअन्तर्गत २०६७ असारमा सामाजिक सुरक्षा कोष स्थापना गरिएको
भए पनि सामाजिक सुरक्षाको क्षेत्रमा यसले नेतृत्वदायी भूमिका निर्वाह गर्न सकेको छैन ।
सम्बन्धित निकायहरूबीच कमजोर समन्वय, कमजोर सूचना व्यवस्थापन प्रणाली तथा
संस्थागत क्षमताको अभाव नै गम्भीर समस्याका रूपमा रहेका छन् ।
हाल सामाजिक सुरक्षा लागत चालू खर्चको १५ प्रतिशत र कुल बजेट खर्चको १० प्रतिशत छ
भने कुल गार्हस्थ्य उत्पादनमा यसको अनुपात २.४ प्रतिशत रहेको छ । सामाजिक सुरक्षाका
क्षेत्रमा आर्थिक स्रोतको व्यवस्थापन चिन्ताको विषय रहेको छ र रहने छ । अहिलेसम्म
निवृत्तिभरण र उपदान सुविधा तथा सामाजिक सुरक्षा भत्ताजस्ता कार्यक्रमका लागि आर्थिक
व्यवस्था राजस्व स्रोतबाटै गर्ने गरिएको छ ।
सामाजिक सुरक्षा व्यवस्थाले कुल जनसंख्याको सानो अंशमात्र समेटेको छ । निवृत्तिभरण
सुविधा सार्वजनिक क्षेत्र÷सरकारी कर्मचारीहरूका लागि मात्र उपलब्ध छ । नेपालको कुल
श्रमशक्तिमा ९० प्रतिशतभन्दा बढी स्थान ओगट्ने असंगठित तथा अनौपचारिक क्षेत्रमा
काम गर्ने श्रमिक तथा कर्मचारीहरूका लागि कुनै पनि किसिमको सामाजिक सुरक्षा योजना
उपलब्ध छैन । विदेशमा कार्यरत नेपाली नागरिक (वा स्वदेशमा कार्यरत विदेशी नागरिक)
का लागि सामाजिक सुरक्षाको कुनै व्यवस्था गरिएको छैन ।

Reference Link:https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/---ilo-kathmandu/documents/publication/wcms_553894.pdf
Publisher:
ILO /GON ,   (2017 )
Type / Script:
Annual Report in Nepali - नेपाली
Keywords:
SOCIAL INSURANCE,SOCIAL PROTECTION, FAMILY ALLOWANCES, INCOME MAINTENANCE, NATIONAL HEALTH INSURANCE, OLD AGE BENEFITS,UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE, INCOME POLICY INSURANCE, SOCIAL LEGISLATION, SOCIAL SECURITY LEGISLATION, SOCIAL SECURITY, CONTRIBUTIONS,SOCIAL WELFARE, DISABILITY BENEFITS
Thematic Group:
 ILO : International Labor & Labor
Thesaurus:
14.05.04  -  Welfare And Social Services
Reference Link:
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