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नेपालमा पर्याप्त खाद्य अधिकारसम्बन्धी कानुनी रूपरेखा र विधिशास्त्रको समीक्षा
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नेपालमा पर्याप्त खाद्य अधिकारसम्बन्धी कानुनी रूपरेखा र विधिशास्त्रीय समीक्षाले खाद्य अधिकारसम्बन्धी नेपालको संवैधानिक तथा कानुनी प्रावधानहरूको आलोचनात्मक समीक्षा गरेको छ । समीक्षाल सर्वाच्च अदालतका खाद्य अधिकारसम्बन्धी सान्दर्भिक फैसला र विधिशास्त्रको पनि विस्तृत विश्लेषण गर्नुका साथै खाद्य अधिकारको उल्लंघनमा गैरन्यायिक माध्यमबाट प्राप्त गरिने उपचारलाई पनि समेटेको छ ।
अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय मानवअधिकार सन्धिहरूको अनुमोदन गर्नमा नेपालको रेकर्ड राम्रो रहेको छ । आर्थिक, सामाजिक तथा सांस्कृतिक अधिकारसम्बन्धी अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय अनुबन्धलगायत मानवअधिकारका अन्य सन्धिहरूको पक्षराष्ट्र भएको नाताले नेपालले नेपाली जनताको खाद्य अधिकार लगायत अन्य मानवअधिकारहरूको सम्मान, संरक्षण र परिपूर्ति गर्ने सम्बन्धमा प्रतिबद्धता जनाएको छ ।त्यस्तै, नेपालमा आधारभूत अधिकार र स्वतन्त्रतालाई “मौलिक हक”का रूपमा संरक्षण गर्ने स्थापित संवैधानिक प्रचलन रहिआएको छ । पर्याप्त खाद्य अधिकारको सन्दर्भमा नेपालको अन्तरिम संविधानमा भएको खाद्य सम्प्रभुता, सम्मानपूर्वक बाँच्न पाउने अधिकार, सामाजिक सुरक्षाको अधिकारलगायत आर्थिक, सामाजिक तथा सांस्कृतिक अधिकारहरूको संरक्षणको व्यवस्था महत्वपूर्ण छन् । यी मौलिक हक तथा अधिकारहरू खाद्य अधिकारलाई प्रभाव पार्ने राज्यका निर्देशक सिद्धान्त तथा नीतिहरूसँग पनि गाँसिएका छन् । नेपालमा जारी संविधान निर्माण प्रक्रियाले खाद्य अधिकारको संवैधानिक संरक्षणलाइ अरू मजबुत बनाउन ऐतिहासिक अवसर पनि प्रदान गरेको छ ।संवैधानिक प्रत्याभूतिका साथै सन्धिजनीत दायित्वहरूको दृष्टिकोणबाट हेर्दा खाद्य अधिकारका कार्यान्वयनमा नेपालको न्यायपालिकाले सकारात्मक कदम चालेको छ । सर्वोच्च अदालतले सार्वजनिक सरोकारको मुद्दा सुन्ने आफ्नो क्षेत्राधिकारको प्रयोगमार्फत खाद्य अधिकारको उपभोगमा प्रभाव कैयां विषयमा न्यायिक निरुपण गरेको छ। राष्ट्रिय मानवअधिकार संस्थाहरू र त्यसमा पनि मुख्यगरी राष्ट्रिय मानवअधिकार आयोगमार्फत गैरन्यायिक उपचारको क्षेत्र पनि विद्यमान रहेको छ । नेपाली जनताको खाद्य अधिकारको उपभोगलाई प्रभावकारी पार्ने सन्दर्भमा व्यवस्थापिका संसद्अन्तर्गतका विभिन्न संसदीय समितिको प्रावधान वा व्यवस्थाले पनि संसदीय अनुगमनको अभ्यास गर्ने अवसर प्रदान गरेको छ । तर यस्ता गैरन्यायिक उपचारका पद्धतिहरूको उपयोग राम्ररी गर्नुपर्ने आवश्यकता छ ।नेपालमा खाद्य अधिकारसँग सान्दर्भिक धेरै विषय र क्षेत्रमा उल्लेख्य कानुनहरु छन् । तर, अन्तरिम संविधानले प्रत्याभूत गरेका खाद्य अधिकारसम्बन्धी प्रावधानहरूलाई कार्यान्वयन गर्ने कानुनी रूपरेखाका भने अभाव छ । आर्थिक तथा सामाजिक असुरक्षालाई सम्बोधन गर्नका लागि आवश्यक कार्यवाही गर्न राज्यलाई अधिकार प्रदान गर्ने विद्यमान कैयौं कानुनी प्रावधानहरूले मानवअधिकारमा आधारित अवधारणालाई आन्तरिकीकरण गर्न चुकेका छन् । त्यस्तै, कैयौ संरक्षणमुखी कानुनी प्रावधानहरू कार्यान्वयनमा आएका छैनन् । कानुनको मात्रै कार्यान्वयनको अभाव हैन, खाद्य अधिकारसम्बन्धी अदालतका निर्णय र फैसलाहरू पनि कार्यान्वयन हुन सकेका छैनन् ।यस्तो मूल्यांकन र विश्लेषणको आधारमा समीक्षाले विस्तृत सिफारिसहरू दिएको छ । त्यसमा अन्य कुराका अतिरिक्त खाद्य अधिकारको रूपरेखा कानुनको तजुमा गनुपनेर्, भोकबाट मुक्त हुन पाउने अधिकारलाई प्रचलनयोग्य मौलिक हकको व्यवस्थामार्फत संवधानिक संरक्षणलाई अरू बलियो बनाउनुपर्ने र पर्याप्त स्तरीय जीवनको अधिकारलाई पूर्ण र विस्तृतरूपमा समेट्नु पर्नेछ । त्यसैगरी, सकारात्मक तथा संरक्षणात्मक प्रावधानहरूको प्रभावकारी कार्यान्वयन, न्यायिक फैसलाको पालना, पर्याप्त खाद्य अधिकारको उपभोगमा प्रभाव पार्ने विभिन्न विषय वा क्षेत्रमा बनेको कानुनको सुधार, खाद्य अधिकारको उल्लंघनको उपचारका लागि राष्ट्रिय मानवअधिकार संस्थाहरूको कार्यादेशको प्रभावकारी उपयोग, आर्थिक, सामाजिक तथा सांस्कृतिक अधिकारसम्बन्धी अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय अनुबन्धको ऐच्छिक आलेखको अनुमोदन, बासस्थानबाट बलपूर्वक निष्कासन वा विस्थापनको कार्यबाट संरक्षण प्रदान गन तथा कानुनमा लैंगिक र सामाजिक समावेशीकरणलाई मूलप्रवाहीकरण गर्न सरकारलाई आह्वान पनि गरेको छ ।
Publisher:
FAO ,   (2014 )
Type / Script:
Publication in Nepali - नेपाली
Keywords:
RIGHT TO FOOD, LEGISLATIVE PROCESS, JUDICIAL POWER, CONSTITUTIONAL LAW, CONSTITUTIONAL PROTECTION, HUMAN RIGHTS, HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS, CIVIL SOCIETY, MALNUTRITION, DISCRIMINATION, FOOD IMPORT, FOOD REQUIREMENTS, FOOD SHORTAGE, FOOD DISTRIBUTION, FOOD AID, ENVIRONMENT, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, FOOD PRODUCTION, FOOD SECURITY, NUTRITION, FOOD SUPPLY, LEGAL REMEDIES, JUDICIAL REVIEW, FOOD SOVEREIGNTY, CONSUMER PROTECTION
Thematic Group:
 FAO : Food and Agriculture Organization
Thesaurus:
14.02.02  -  Human Rights
Reference Link:
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