United Nations
Information Centre | Nepal
Environmental Causes of Displacement
PDF File Size: 1.57 MB | Download   
In June 2013 a study was carried out in five districts vulnerable to floods, drought, or landslides to collect first-hand information about specific environmental stresses and their impact on the displacement of local people. Mahottari District was selected for its problems with flooding; Udayapur District for landslides; and Panchthar and Kavre districts selected for drought stress. Gulmi District was selected because the flow of emigrants has remained high since historical times.
The findings reveal that environmental stress often displaces people who depended on ecosystem services for their livelihoods. The following are some of the highlights.
1. Over the last 10 years, water sources in Panchthar and Kavre have gradually
dried up, over the last ten years and springs in Gulmi have been drying up
rapidly in the same period. The government has declared 11 villages in Kavre
drought-affected.
2. Water markets have flourished in areas where local water sources have become dry. In Yashok, Panchthar, for example, people pay NPR 1.5 per litre for water tractors bring from faraway sources.
3. Forest cover in Yashok, Panchthar, increased over the last 10 years. Farmers claim that longer periods of the drought have forced them to leave arable land fallow, thus enable trees to grow. Some abandoned agricultural land is now forested.
4. In Mahottarai, because of the declining groundwater table, there is less water in wells and people, mostly women, have to wait in queues to collect water.
5. Farmers reported sharp declines in the production of rice, maize, millet, wheat, mustard, peanuts, buckwheat, broom grass, ginger, lemons, and oranges. People in Yashok, Panchthar District, and Dauwa, Gulmi District, have stopped planting rice because conditions are too dry.
6. Practicing animal husbandry has become difficult, and the production of milk and meat has declined in drought-hit areas.
7. People from Panchthar and Gulmi have coped with water shortages by moving to Terai districts. In Kavre, people with homes in the highlands have moved to lower elevations where more water is available. Those from Panchtar do not expect to return; they often find opportunities to work on a contract basis in the paddy fields of Jhapa and Morang and are content to remain. In fact, some migrant families from Yashok have certificates enabling them to live permanently in Jhapa and Morang. Migrants from Gulmi and Kavre, in contrast, hope to return once the water situation improves. Displaced families from Kavre do not have migration certificates because their migration (to lower-lying land in the same VDC) is largely temporary in nature.
8. Displacement due to the floods and landslides in Mahottarai and Uaypur districts is permanent because the land where migrants once lived has generally turned into wasteland.
9. More Chhetri and Brahman families migrate than do aadivasi (indigenous) and janjati (ethnic group) families.
10. Historically, people from Panchathar, and Gulmi migrated to the Terai in search for better opportunities. But this trend seems to be changing. In the 1990s, it was the armed conflict that drove people to move and now it is drought. The historical trend of migration among the people of Kavre is within the district, from high to lowland.
11. Though Udayapur and Mohattari once attracted migrants from the hilly areas today they themselves are growing increasingly vulnerable due to landslides and floods respectively.
Publisher:
GoN, UNDP, UNEP ,   (2013 )
Type / Script:
Progress Report in English
Keywords:
DISPLACED PERSONS, MIGRATION, INTERNAL MIGRATION, DEVELOPMENT-BASED DISPLACEMENT, NATURAL DISASTERS, DROUGHT, FLOODS, LANDSLIDES, WATER SUPPLY, FOREST CONSERVATION, AGRICULTURE, WATER SCARCITY, ETHNIC GROUPS, INDIGENOUS PEOPLES, POPULATION GROWTH
Thematic Group:
 UNDP : Social and Institutional Developoment
Thesaurus:
13.02.00  -  Disaster Prevention, Preparedness And Relief
Reference Link:
** This document has been:
553  times viewed
5  times downloaded.
Feeder: PRAJU SHRESTHA , Editor: , Auditor:

View Document History
Related Topics
Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs): Current Status
Internally Displacement Information Booklet
Displacement Tracking Matrix - Nepal Earthquake 2015 (15 June 2015)
Displacement Tracking Matrix - Nepal Earthquake 2015 (May-June 2015)
Water Conservation Ponds In Nepal
Nepal Earthquake: Weekly Situation Update (as of 31 July 2015)
Nepal - UNHCR Global Appeal 2006
Longer-Term Disaster Displaced: A Forgotten Group- Issue no. 11
Report of the Representative of the Secretary-General on the Human Rights of Internally Displaced Persons (No File)
Displacement Tracking Matrix - CCCM Cluster, Nepal (2 May 2015)
(Duplicate Document; Wrong Topic) A Rapid Scan Organizations Working on Women and Peace in Nepal
Displacement Tracking Matrix - Nepal Earthquake 2015 (21 JULY 2015)
लिटिल डायनाे
रङ्गीन विष
Landslides and Displacement Situation Update (27 August 2015)
Water, Sanitationa and Hygiene - Nepal Earthquake Cluster Brief (June 2015)
Guidance Note: A Development Approach To Migration And Displacement
Displacement Tracking Matrix: Nepal Earthquake 2015 (DTM Round 6 : Published 18 March, 2016)
Displacement Tracking Matrix: Nepal Earthquake 2015 ( DTM Round 4: Published 15 September, 2015 )
Displacement Tracking Matrix: Nepal Earthquake 2015 ( DTM Round 5: Published 25 November 2015 )
Technical Cooperation Programme: Strengthening Capacities for Disaster Prevention and Preparedness and Climate Risk Management in the Agricultural Sector
Nepal: International Community Must Immediately Help Internally Displaced People
Joint Inter Agency Mission to Mid-Western Region
Landslides and Displacement in Earthquake Affected areas: Bi-Weekly Update (27 July 2015)
Inter – Agency Mission Report Eastern Region 18 -29 May 2006
Agricultural Technology For Development ( Seventieth session )
Final Report: Development of Water Management in the Caza of Marjayoun
Ecosystem Based Adaptation in Mountain Ecosystems in Nepal Project Completion Report
NEPAL VERSION 1 Flood | August 2017 Date released: 21 August 2017
Nepal Earthquake: District Profile - Dolakha (19 August 2015)
Report of the Regional Review of Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) in Five Districts of the Mid - and Far Western Development Regions
Watershed Management Case Study: Nepal Review and Assessment of Watershed Management Strategies and Approaches
NEPAL FLOOD RESPONSE DTM NEPAL REPORT ROUND 1 21ST-29TH August 2017
Nepal: Flooding Response Plan (August 2017-February 2018)
Special Report - FAO/WFP Food Security Assessment Mission To Nepal (25 July 2007)
Press Release - IOM Continues CGI Sheet Distribution in Landslide-Prone Community in Nepal
Mid-Year Review of the Nepal Appeal for 2008
Ecosystem based adaptation - A case from Panchase [YouTube]
Nepal: Koshi River Flood Draft - CCCM Recent Displacement Trends in Sunsari District, 18th Nov. 2008
Technical Cooperation Programme - Strengthening Capacities for Disaster Prevention and Preparedness and Climate Risk Management in the Agricultural Sector
NEPAL COUNTRY REPORT GLOBAL ASSESSMENT OF RISK ISDR
Nepal Earthquake Response: DTM Nepal Report : Round 1 ( May 2015)
UNICEF Nepal Humanitarian Situation Report 19 ( 20 August 2015 )
Gender Equality- Update No. 2
Nepal: Disaster Management Reference Handbook
Community Based Flood and Glacial Lake Out Burst Risk Reduction Project
Community Based Flood and Glacial Lake Outbrust Risk Reduction Project
FAO/WFP Food Security Assessment Mission to Nepal
Community Based Landslide Treatment In Nepal
Weekly Situation Update ( 7 August 2015 )
Representative of the UN Secretary-General on the Human Rights of Internally Displaced Persons Arrives in Nepal
Lessons learned from appraising the impact of IFAD projects in Nepal on the GHG balance and stocks of natural resources - An analysis using the Ex-Ante Carbon balance Tool
Economic and Financial Decision Making in Disaster Risk Reduction
Addressing Water & Sanitation Services in Peri-urban Areas
Nepal Monthly Situation Update, Issue No. 64 (October 2010)
Rapid Assessment Internal Migration
Humanitarian Action For Children
Early Warning in Action: Kanchanpur, Nepal
पारिस्थितिकिय प्रणालिमा आधारित अनुकुलन
Hupsekot Leasehold Forest Intergroup Received Mountain Development Award 2011
Ecosystem Based Adaptation
UN Newsletter - Vol. 14 (August 2009)
UN Launches Photography Contest about Disaster Risk
Nepal Biodiversity Strategy
Project Document -Disaster Preparedness Project-2007
Integrating Agriculture In National Adaptation Plans: Safeguarding Livelihoods And Promoting Resilience Through NAPs
The Poverty-Environment Initiative (PEI) In Nepal
Weekly Situation Update (17 July 2015)
Payments for Forest Environmental Services in Sub-Saharan Africa
नागदहका माछा
इम्जाकाे झस्काे
खाैराे बकुल्ला
Safer Migration Prgramme
The ILO’s response to the Nepal earthquake (April 2015)
Natural Disaster Challenges in Rukum District - Issue 30
Addressing Rural Youth Migration at its Root Causes: A Conceptual Framework
अन्तराष्ट्रिय आप्रवासन संगठन नेपाल एक झलक (जनवरी २०१८)
Damages, Losses and Recovery Needs of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Sector
CCCM Cluster Meeting Minutes - 03 May 2015
Asia and the Pacific: Weekly Regional Humanitarian Snapshot (12 - 18 May 2015)
OCHA Nepal Situation Overview, Issue No. 16 (August 2007)
Far-Western Humanitarian Situation Report UN Field Coordination Office Dadeldhura, Nepal (June 2013)
Ecosystem Services
Emergency and Humanitarian Action (EHA) Newsletter - Issue VIII, September 2006
IOM Opens Office in Kathmandu, Nepal
Nepal Earthquake IOM Emergency Response Situation Report 22 May 2015
Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Cluster Guidance, Nepal (Lessons Learned from Koshi Flood Response)
Nepal Migration Profile 2019
Migration and resilience: Experiences from Nepal's 2015 earthquake
Nepal Climate Change Support Programme
Nepal : District Affected by Floods and Landslides in the West Nepal: (4 Oct to 7 Oct, 2009)
Nepal - Flood and Landslide Affected Areas Period Covered: 1 June - 18 June 2013
NCCSP Thematic Areas
NEITHER HEROINES NOR VICTIMS : Women Migrant Workers and Changing Family and Community Relations in Nepal
Report on Identification of Open Space Humanitarian Purposes in Kathmandu Valley
Multi-storied Agroforestry Cropping Systems For Micro-Climatic Modification And Erosion Control In Nepal
UNICEF Nepal Humanitarian Situation Report 6 (as of 5 May 2015)
NCCSP at a Glance
PROMOTING INFORMED POLICY DIALOGUE ON MIGRATION, REMITTANCE AND DEVELOPMENT IN NEPAL
The International Organization For Migration Mission In Nepal: FEBRUARY 2016 INFO-SHEET
100 result(s) found.