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Labour Migration for Employment: A Status Report for Nepal: 2014/2015
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Foreign employment is indeed the most significant motivation for international migration from Nepal in the twenty-first century. More than 3.8 million permits to work abroad (excluding India) were issued by the Government during the 1993/94–2014/15 fiscal years, which represents almost 14 per cent of the current population. As well, according to the recent census data (2011), nearly 71 per cent of the total absent population (1,921,494), or people living out of the country (including living in India) cited private and institutional jobs abroad as the reasons for leaving.

Subsequently, there has been a huge increase in the inflow of remittances, from 58.6 billion rupees (NPR) in 2003/04 to NPR589.5 billion in 2014/15. Remittances contributed a 10.9 percentage share of the gross domestic product (GDP) in 2003/04 and 27.7 per cent in 2014/15. The remittance flow, therefore, is a major contributor to development financing in Nepal.

The outflow of migrants in the past decade has been momentous in transforming the country’s economic, social and cultural fabric. Nepal has emerged as a remittance economy, shaped by migrants’ cash flows, so much so that it was the third-largest recipient of remittances—as a share of GDP—in the world in 20122 and the top recipient among least developed countries.3 Foreign employment has provided alternative livelihood opportunities, and remittances have helped to augment household incomes.
Among the many impacts of foreign employment, the social dynamics have changed, with many people in the working-age population, particularly men, absent from home. Additionally, cultural norms are being transformed as more women join the labour force nationally and internationally.

The voluminous nature of labour migration for employment has brought both new opportunities and challenges for the Government and policy-makers. A primary concern has been in managing the huge outflow while ensuring the safety, rights, decency and welfare of migrant workers. This has required strengthening the governance process, creating cohesive legislation and policies and ensuring their proper implementation.
Despite the legislation and policies and an increase in migrant workers opting to go abroad via regular channels, there are still gaps in the implementation of such legislation and policies. These gaps have hampered the rights and safety of migrants. The cases of labour migrants suffering from abuses, exploitation and financial distress are frequent and impinge on their rights and well-being.

Emphasis on strategies for safe and better remunerative labour migration4 oriented around labour and human rights and a much deeper and more comprehensive understanding of the foreign employment phenomenon in all of its dimensions, such that it may be harnessed for national development are needed in the current context.

Thus, the aim of this report is to document the current data, trends, issues and challenges relating to foreign employment and inform various country-level initiatives in both sending and receiving countries, including policy decisions and the improvement of migration management mechanisms and governance institutions to promote safe and dignified migration.

#ILO #Migration #ForeignEmployment
Government of Nepal ,   (2016 )
Type / Script:
Annual Report in English
Thematic Group:
 Others : Non UN Publisher or Authors
12.00.0A  -  Employment
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