United Nations
Information Centre | Nepal
Promoting Informed Policy Dialogue on Migration, Remittance and Development In Nepal
PDF File Size: 2.19 MB | Download   
Migration from Nepal is not a new phenomenon, but it has been on the increase in recent years, with the majority of flows consisting of low-skilled migrants moving to Malaysia or the Middle East for temporary work contracts in such fields as construction and domestic work. Nepal is heavily dependent on this remittance inflow, with money sent home representing almost a third of the gross domestic product. By far, the remittance inflow exceeds other financial inflows. But an important global discussion regarding the complex relationship between migration and development is ongoing. Along with the positive, migration certainly has a hefty share of negative impacts on development at the micro, meso and macro levels. Simultaneously, development can lead to more migration. To look at migration and development within the Nepali context, the International Labour Organization commissioned the Institute for Integrated Development Studies to investigate the complexities between the two dynamics.

This report presents the findings of a survey conducted with 421 remittance-receiving households, six focus group discussions with 74 returnee migrants, eight informant interviews with relevant stakeholders and a mapping of good practices from across the world (all work conducted in 2015).The analysis of that material thus discusses possible ways that Nepal can maximize the positive developmental impacts of migration.

Some key findings:
- More than half of the migrants in the study went abroad through employment agencies and 36 per cent through agents. Government channels were used in just 1 per cent of cases.
- On average, a migration journey costs a migrant worker approximately 150,000 Nepali rupees (NPR), or $1,372, which was more than the annual household income of NPR27,281 ($1,165) in the 2010–11 fiscal year (FY) (CBS, 2011).
- Owing to the high costs (compared with average household income), an overwhelming majority of households (87 per cent) took a loan to finance the foreign employment journey.
- Four out of five migrants secured their loan from a local moneylender, friend or relative, some of whom charged higher interest rates than banks or finance companies.
- The average interest rate for a loan to finance migration was 35 per cent.
- The surveyed Nepali migrant workers earned an average of NPR29,927 ($273) per month while abroad.

The main challenges upon return were identified as a mismatch between the skills acquired abroad and domestic needs and capacities and the inability to realize a business plan upon return. Approximately one in three returnee migrants was considering remigration. Based on this study, the main challenges limiting the positive development implications of migration in Nepal were identified as: (i) a limited banking network and a large proportion of an “unbanked” population; (ii) high levels of poverty, unemployment and illiteracy; (iii) poor and inadequate infrastructure; (iv) limited human capital; (v) high migration costs; and (vi) a lack of policy and institutional coherence on topics relevant to migration.

Conclusions and recommendations:
Without addressing some of the major development challenges facing Nepal, efforts to channel remittances or mobilize diasporas will have limited to no impact if the general environment is not considered. While migration does offer development potential, it is important that attention to migration and development does not come at the expense of broader development goals and complements rather replaces these efforts. Thus, government efforts to develop physical infrastructure (such as roads and electricity), combined with the development of education (for example, through an improved technical education and vocational training system) should underpin the more specific recommendations.
#ILO #Migration #Remittance
ILO ,   (2016 )
Type / Script:
Publication in English
Thematic Group:
 ILO : International Labor & Labor
12.04.00  -  Labour Relations
Reference Link:
** This document has been:
26  times viewed
0  times downloaded.
Feeder: SPRSTHPT@GMAIL COM , Editor: , Auditor:

View Document History
Related Topics
Labour Migration for Employment - A Status Report for Nepal: 2015/2016 - 2016/2017
Labour Migration for Employment: A Status Report for Nepal: 2014/2015
South Asia Labour Migration Governance Project
35th Anniversary ILO-Nepal Partnership
Issue Paper: Fair Recruitment in International Labour Migration Between Asia and the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries
Labour Migration for Employment - A Status Report for Nepal 2013/2014
Analysis of Labour Market and Migration Trends in Nepal
Decent Civil Works in Nepal: From Research to Action Planning (Series 8)
SDGs in Nepal Goal 8: Info-graphics
International Labour Migration : A rights-based approach (March 27, 2010)
Note on Migration and Remittances (24.07.2015)
An Overview Paper on Overseas Employment in Nepal
Migration and Child Labour Exploring Child Migrant Vulnerabilities and Those of Children Left-Behind
Promoting The Health Of Left-Behind Children Of Asian Labour Migrants: Evidence For Policy And Action
Migration of Health Workers from Nepal
Decent Work Country Programme, Nepal (2013-2017)
Labour Migration for Employment - A Status Report for Nepal: 2014/2015
Country leaflet-Background and overview of ILO activities in Nepal.
Decent Work Country Programme, Nepal (2013-2017)
Women migrant workers still working under unclear, unfair contracts, study finds,despite availability of best-practice templates
Thematic Working group 3 on Low skilled Labour Migration Technical Workshop on Review of Bilateral Agreements on Low Skilled Labour Migaration
Travel Smart – Work Smart A guide for Nepali migrant workers in the United Arab Emirates
The International Organization For Migration Mission In Nepal: FEBRUARY 2016 INFO-SHEET
Valuing The Contributions Of Women Migrant Workers In ASEAN
Realizing a Fair Migration Agenda: Labour flows between Asia and Arab States : Background Paper For discussion at ILO interregional experts’ meeting ( 3- 4 December 2014 )
Regional Tripartite Workshop on Social Dimensions of Economic Reforms in Asia
Migration Initiatives 2016: Migration Governance And Sustainable Development
Collective Bargaining: A Policy Guide
Managing Migration for the Benefit of all:The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Mission in Nepal INFO-SHEET
Labour market trends analysis and labour migration from South Asia to Gulf Cooperation Council countries, India and Malaysia
Evaluation Summary: Mid-Term Evaluation of Promoting the Effective Govvernance of Labour Migration from South Asia
Reducing Distress Migration Through Decent Rural Employment
Way Out of Informality: Facilitating Formalization of Informal Economy in Nepal (WOI)
UNDP Nepal Youth Strategy 2018-2022
IOM Opens Office in Kathmandu, Nepal
Brief on Work in Freedom Programme in Nepal
Foreign Labor Migration and Trafficking in Persons in Nepal: A Situational Analysis
Promoting The Health Of Left-Behind Children Of Asian Labour Migrants: Evidence For Policy And Action
International Labour Organization
Education, Training And Skills: Women Migrant Workers In ASEAN
Occupational Safety and Health Development in Nepal (SHIELD)
Fifty Years Of Work in Nepal Reflecting Back Or Looking Forward Together For Social Justice ILO
Savings and Credit Associations and Remittances: The case of Far West Nepalese Labour Migrants in Delhi, India
Decent Work Country Programme For Nepal 2008 – 2012
Economic Security of Women Migrant Workers; A Pilot Reintegration Programme: Making Remittance Work for Women
No Easy Exit: Migration Bans Affecting Women From Nepal
Realizing A Fair Migration Agenda: Labour Flows between Asia And Arab States - Summary Report Of The Interregional Experts Meeting (3-4 December 2014)
The Linkage Between Women's Emloyment, Family Welfare And Child Labour in Nepal
The ILO in Nepal
Nepal Labour Force Survey 2008
Migrant Smuggling In Asia: An Annotated Bibliography Volume 2 (2014)
Migration of Working Children in Nepal
Terms Of Reference (ToR) Call For EOI: Develop Job Portal And Labour Market Database System
Labour Market Transitions of Young Women and Men in Nepal ( May 2014)
Jobs and Skills for Youth : Review of Policies for Youth Employment of Nepal
Why do people migrate? An overview of labour migration issues in Achham and Bajura - Issue 56
Employment- Led Growth in Nepal
Report on the Nepal Labour Force Survey 2008
Promoting Effective Governance of Labour Migration from South Asia: The ILO South Asia Labour Migration Governance Project (2013–2016)
Nepal Labour Market Update
Analysis of Labour Market and Migration Trends in Nepal
Report on the Nepal Labour Force Survey - 1998/99
Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Human Rights of Migrants on his Mission to Nepal
Migration and resilience: Experiences from Nepal's 2015 earthquake
Nepal Migration Profile 2019
International Youth Day
International Conference on the Rights of Migrant Workers
ILO Publications Autumn 2012
Situation Report on International Migration in East and South-East Asia
International Organization for Migration, Nepal Mission Overview - January 2019
Newsletter Bi-annual, Issue 1- Nepal Decent Work:(May 2014)
Facts And Figures: Women Migrant Workers In ASEAN
THE KINGDOM OF NEPAL -- Rural Training for Employment and Income Generation: Applying the Truga _Methodology - Project findings and recommendations
भारत यात्राः नेपालबाट संकटका बेला निर्वाहका लागि बसाइ सराइ (मंसिर २०६५)
Addressing Rural Youth Migration at its Root Causes: A Conceptual Framework
Celebration Of 50 Years Of The International Labour Organization’s Development Cooperation In Nepal
Country Paper Nepal (October 2001)
International Organization for Migration Nepal Mission Overview - January 2018
Job offer Short film Net 4 Good [Youtube]
आप्रवासी कामदारहरुको अधिकार
GENPROM Working Paper No. 12 : Series on Gender in the Life Cycle : The Linkages Between Women's Employment, Family Welfare And Child Labour In Nepal
Labour and Social Trends in Nepal - 2010
Nepal Ratifies ILO Forced Labour Convention
Country Strategic Opportunities Programme (COSOP) - IFAD Nepal 2013-2018
Bureau of Employers Activities in Nepal (ACT/EMP)
Investigating the Worst Forms of Child Labour No. 5 Nepal Bonded Labour Among Child Workers of the Kamaiya System: A Rapid Assessment
Labour Inspection: Women Migrant Workers In ASEAN
Making Fair Recruitment a Reality
From Protocol to Practice:A Bridge to Global Action on Forced Labour (The Bridge Project)2015
Nepal Organizes Stakeholder Consultation on Global Migration Compact
Labour Laws, The Business Environment And The Growth Of Micro And Small Enterprises In South Asia
National Labour and Employment Conference 2069 : " Promoting conducive labour relations for decent work and job rich economic growth 9-11 July 2012
An In-Depyh Study On The Realities And Concerns Of Nepalese Domestic Workers In Hong Kong
ILO Publications 2013
Managing Migration for the Benefit of All
IOM Nepal Info Sheet – Updated August 2016
NEITHER HEROINES NOR VICTIMS : Women Migrant Workers and Changing Family and Community Relations in Nepal
Employment Sector: The Dynamics Of Employment, The labour Market And The Economy In Nepal
100 result(s) found.